Accrued expense is an expense that has been incurred but has not yet been paid. Put it in simple words, payment for these expenses are done after the product or service is taken. For example, salaries & wages, interest on bank loan, income tax etc.
Contrary to prepaid expense, an accrued expense is treated as current liability (If the expense is expected to be paid with a year) and shown on liability side of a balance sheet.
These expenses are recorded for the period in which they incur and not for the period in which payment is made.
For example, company XYZ ltd paid salaries to its employees for the month of March 2017 on 3rd April 2017. The company will make a journal entry for the month of march (for which salaries were issued) and not for the month of April (in which salaries were paid).
Accrued income is the income which has been earned but has not yet been received. This earned income falls under this category only if the company has right to receive this income. Accrued income is recorded for the period for which it is accrued and not for the period in which invoice is raised or payment is received.
For example, XYZ ltd holds a contract with ABC ltd to provide accounting solutions for the accounting year 2016 – 2017. As per the terms of agreement, invoice will be raised in accounting period 2017 – 18 and payment shall be made after that.
As the company XYZ ltd is providing its services throughout the year, the portion of income thus generated will be recorded for the period 2016 – 2017 and not for 2017 – 18 (in which invoice is raised).
Companies which use cash basis accounting do not use this term as they record the transaction when cash is received.
Accrued income is considered as current asset for a company (if the payment is expected to be received within a year) and is recorded on assets side of a balance sheet.
Deferred revenue (also known as unearned revenue) is the income which has been received but the product/ service is yet to be delivered to customer.
As this is the amount which has been received in advance, this is treated as current liability (If the agreement is to provide goods/ services within a year) and shown on liability side of a balance sheet.
This becomes income when the order is fulfilled and product or service is delivered to customer.
Examples of deferred revenue:
Unearned revenue is most common for companies which provide software services to its customer and charge upfront amount.
Rent received in advance, prepayment for subscription for newspaper are the other examples of unearned revenue.
Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP) is a corporate scheme in which sponsoring company distribute its share to the employees free of cost or at a price lower than market price. The price so decided is known as grant price or exercise price. This right can be exercised within time frame imposed by the company and only a fixed number of shares can be purchased by the employee.
Sometimes these shares are funded by bank loan taken by the employer. Dividend on these shares is then used to pay the loan amount.
Employees get benefited from this plan when market price of shares are higher than the grant price. This scheme is used by companies to retain its employees and to boost the morale of employees.
Difference between employee stock option plan and employee stock ownership plan
Employee stock option plan is different from the employee stock ownership plan in which shares are transferred only when an employee separates from the company.